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Position Paper of the People's Republic of China At the 69th Session of the United Nations General Assembly

I. 70th Anniversary of the Founding of the United Nations (UN)

Next year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the UN and the victory of the world anti-fascist war. The UN and the international community should hold grand commemorative celebrations to reaffirm their commitment to multilateralism, uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, strengthen the post-war international order, enhance the role of the UN and jointly promote peace and development. To this end, we propose to include the "commemoration of the 70th anniversary of WWII" in the agenda of the 69th Session of the UN General Assembly.

II. UN Reform

China supports the UN in keeping abreast of the times and working for self-development and improvement through reform in order to better respond to the expectations of the international community. Reform should help strengthen the capacity of the UN in coordinating international efforts to tackle global challenges and increase the voice of developing countries in international affairs. Reform should be an all-round process, with balanced progress in security, development and human rights. In particular, positive results should be achieved in development, as it concerns the vital interests of developing countries.

China supports reform of the Security Council. The priority of the reform should be on increasing the representation and voice of developing countries, especially African countries, in the Security Council so that small and medium-sized countries will have more opportunities to sit on the Security Council in turns, participate in its decision-making, and play a bigger role in the Security Council. It is important to continue with democratic and extensive consultations, accommodate the interests and concerns of all parties, seek a package solution and reach the broadest possible agreement. We should avoid setting an artificial time limit for reform or forcing through any immature reform proposals.

III. Counter-Terrorism

Terrorism is the common enemy of the world which poses a serious threat to international security and development. The international community should carry out extensive cooperation to jointly combat terrorism in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other universally recognized international law and norms governing international relations, and fully implement relevant Security Council resolutions and the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. The UN and its Security Council should play a leading and coordinating role in the battle against terrorism. A holistic approach that addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism should be adopted and the practice of double standards in fighting terrorism must be rejected. China maintains that countries should stay vigilant against the development of international terrorism and crack down on the attempts of terrorists to spread, instigate and sell terrorist ideas, recruit terrorists, and finance and plan terrorist attacks with the use of the Internet and other modern communications technologies.

IV. Peacekeeping Operations

In recent years, as a result of the changes in the international landscape, UN peacekeeping operations are faced with higher requirements and growing challenges. China supports the proposal of the Secretary-General for a review on peacekeeping operations and favors necessary reform of peacekeeping operations on the basis of broad consensus. Meanwhile, the international community should continue to adhere to the three principles of "consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate" put forward by former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, and respect the sovereignty of the recipient countries and pay attention to their concerns during the conduct of the operations.

China is a firm supporter of and an active participant in UN peacekeeping operations. To date, China has sent over 20,000 military personnel, police officers and civilian officials to UN peacekeeping operations. At present, there are over 2,100 Chinese peacekeepers on duty in nine operations, which makes China the biggest peacekeeper contributor among the five permanent members of the Security Council. China will continue with its active and deep involvement in UN peacekeeping operations.

V. Information and Cyber Security

The international community should, on the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, strengthen dialogue and cooperation, and work together to create a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace for the benefit of common security of all countries. Information and communications technologies should be used for the purpose of advancing economic and social development and promoting international peace and stability. Efforts should be made to prevent militarization of cyberspace and cyber arms race. China supports protection of the free flow of information on the condition of complying with national laws and opposes using cyberspace to interfere in other countries' internal affairs or undermine their interests. China calls for the building of a multilateral, democratic and transparent governance system of the Internet, upholds the idea of mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, and maintains that the international community should work to narrow the "digital divide" by scaling up assistance to developing countries.

China, together with Russia and other countries, have jointly submitted a draft resolution on the international code of conduct on information security to the UN General Assembly, which may serve as a basis for the relevant international discussions. China will continue to work with other members of the international community to improve the code of conduct and set up a framework of relevant international rules at an early date. The UN should play a leading role in addressing the issue of cyber security.

VI. Regional Hotspot Issues

1. Situation on the Korean Peninsula

China is committed to a denuclearized, peaceful and stable Korean Peninsula and settlement of relevant issues through dialogue and consultation. Dialogue and consultation is the only effective way to resolve relevant issues, and the Six-Party Talks is a practical and effective platform for addressing the concerns of all parties in a balanced manner and achieving denuclearization on the Peninsula. China hopes that the parties concerned will refrain from any action that may raise tensions, engage in contact and dialogue, stay committed to resolving differences through negotiation and work for the early resumption of the Six-Party Talks.

2. Afghanistan

China hopes to see a smooth political, security and economic transition in Afghanistan. China supports the Afghan-led and Afghan-owned reconciliation process and the establishment of a broad-based and inclusive government in Afghanistan. The international community should respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Afghanistan and honor the commitment of assistance to Afghanistan's economic and social development. China will host the fourth ministerial meeting of the Istanbul Process on Afghanistan in the second half of 2014.

3. Middle East Peace Process

The Palestinian issue is at the core of the Middle East issue. China supports the Palestinian people's efforts to establish an independent Palestinian state that enjoys full sovereignty, with East Jerusalem as its capital and based on the 1967 borders. We support Palestine in joining the UN and other international organizations. The parties concerned should properly solve their disputes through political and diplomatic means on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of "land for peace", the Arab Peace Initiative and the Roadmap for Peace in the Middle East. In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward China's four-point proposal on resolving the Palestinian issue.

China is deeply saddened by the new round of conflict between Israel and Palestine and the massive casualties it has caused. We condemn all actions that bring harm to innocent civilians. Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi raised a five-point peace proposal on settling the Israel-Palestine conflict. The root cause of the conflict between Israel and Palestine is the absence of just and reasonable settlement of the Palestinian issue over a long time. Relevant parties in Israel and Palestine should firmly commit themselves to the strategic choice of peace talks and demonstrate goodwill to each other. The two sides should move towards, not away from each other in the peace talks, and in particular, avoid the breakdown of peace talks and further escalation of tensions.

Talks on the Syria-Israel and Lebanon-Israel tracks are important components of the Middle East peace process. They merit our attention and should be pushed forward as well.

4. Syria

Political settlement is the only realistic way out of the Syrian crisis. The pressing task for all parties in Syria now is to proceed from the future of the nation and safety of the people, put an immediate end to the hostilities and violence, restart negotiations and embark on a "middle way" that suits Syria's national conditions and accommodates the concerns of all parties in Syria. China supports the mediation efforts of the UN towards the political settlement of the Syrian issue.

China supports taking credible steps to ease the humanitarian situation in Syria and will continue to provide humanitarian assistance to the Syrian people, including Syrian refugees in other countries. At the same time, humanitarian assistance should be carried out in accordance with relevant UN guiding principles. Humanitarian issues should not be politicized. The international community must work together to combat terrorism and eliminate the breeding ground of terrorist and extremist forces.

5. Iraq

China supports the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq and the efforts made by the Iraqi government to safeguard national stability and combat terrorism. China supports and encourages continued inclusive political dialogue by all factions in Iraq and promotion of the political reconciliation and economic reconstruction process in the country. On the issue of counter-terrorism in Iraq, the international community needs to build consensus and synergy, pay attention to the linkage among regional hotspot issues, and work for comprehensive governance.

6. Iranian Nuclear Issue

China supports the international non-proliferation regime, and calls for a proper solution to the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation so as to maintain peace and stability in the Middle East. As a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Iran has the right to peaceful use of nuclear energy and should at the same time fulfill its international non-proliferation obligations. Currently, the P5+1 countries and Iran are steadily proceeding with the implementation of the first phase agreement and actively advancing negotiations on the comprehensive agreement. All relevant parties need to step up diplomatic efforts, stay committed to equal-footed consultation, and work for the conclusion of a comprehensive agreement that is impartial, balanced and mutually beneficial. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Iran also need to strengthen cooperation and seek early resolution to relevant outstanding issues.

7. South Sudan

China sincerely hopes that the two sides of the South Sudan conflict will act in the fundamental interests of the country and the people and the larger interests of regional peace and stability, earnestly implement the ceasefire agreement, carry out inclusive negotiations, resolve differences through political means and realize national reconciliation. The international community should continue to firmly support the mediation efforts and leading role of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and provide humanitarian assistance to South Sudan.

8. The Darfur Issue of Sudan

It is important to fully leverage the role of the tripartite mechanism involving the UN, the AU and the government of Sudan as the main channel for the settlement of the Darfur issue, and advance in a balanced way the "dual-track" strategy of peacekeeping deployment and political negotiation. We hope that other factions in Darfur will join the political negotiation process as quickly as possible.

9. Libya

The various forces in Libya need to act in the interests of the nation and the people, immediately stop fighting and violence, resolve their differences through inclusive dialogue and consultation, restore stability as quickly as possible, and safeguard ethnic and national unity. The international community needs to work together to promote peace and dialogue, earnestly honor its commitment to Libya, make concerted efforts towards the proper settlement of the issue and help Libya achieve political transition and advance economic reconstruction.

10. Somalia

China welcomes the breakthrough in Somalia's peace process, and hopes that the Somali government and people will seize the current historic opportunity to achieve peace, stability and national reconstruction at an early date. The international community needs to honor its commitment of assistance to Somalia, increase support for the AU Mission in Somalia and support the work of the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia. China has decided to reopen its embassy in Somalia and a preparatory team has already been dispatched there.

11. Mali

China firmly supports the efforts of Mali to safeguard national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, and welcomes the efforts of relevant parties to seek political settlement of the northern Mali issue through peaceful negotiations. China has all along supported peace and development of Mali. We have provided Mali, the AU and relevant countries in the region with necessary assistance and actively contributed peacekeeping troops to the UN peacekeeping operations in Mali. China appreciates and supports the efforts of African countries and regional organizations to safeguard Mali's unity as well as peace and stability in the region.

12. Central African Republic

China hopes that the major factions in the Central African Republic will earnestly implement the ceasefire commitment, work for ethnic unity and create an enabling environment for political transition and national reconstruction. The international community needs to increase its attention to and input in the situation in the Central African Republic and support the work of the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA).

13. Ukraine

China has always followed an objective and impartial position on the Ukrainian issue. China believes that political settlement is the only way out of the Ukrainian crisis. Relevant parties need to engage in dialogue, enhance cooperation, properly handle differences and seek a political plan that provides a comprehensive solution to the crisis with balanced consideration of the interests of all parties. China supports relevant international coordinating mechanisms in making greater efforts to facilitate peace talks, and stands ready to continue to play a constructive role in the political settlement of the Ukrainian crisis.

VII. Development Issues

1. Post-2015 Development Agenda

The post-2015 development agenda should be advanced steadily on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the current state of international development cooperation, especially the global implementation of the MDGs. The process should be led by governments of the Member States and conducted under the UN framework.

The post-2015 development agenda that is fair, inclusive and sustainable should be set out in the spirit of mutual benefit and win-win cooperation. China believes that the development agenda should center on eradicating poverty and promoting development, adhere to the guiding principles of respecting diversity in development models and "common but differentiated responsibilities", and stay committed to improving livelihood, promoting inclusive economic growth and social progress. It should balance the three pillars of economy, society and environment, respect the development paths and policies of all countries, strengthen the global development partnership, improve its implementation tools and mechanisms, and secure the resources for development.

2. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

2015 is the deadline in meeting the MDGs. Despite the considerable progress worldwide in meeting the MDGs, their implementation is far from even among different countries and regions and there are many difficulties in fulfilling the MDGs on time globally. The international community should continue to honor its commitment and must not slacken its efforts in pushing for the attainment of the MDGs. The international community should ensure development resources, speed up implementation and focus on helping Africa achieve development and eradicate poverty, and increase support for the least developed countries as a matter of priority. Developing countries should also take concrete actions to achieve development in line with their national conditions. The UN should continue to play a central role in international development cooperation and provide institutional guarantee for the realization of the MDGs.

3. Climate Change

China welcomes the positive outcomes of the Warsaw Climate Change Conference at the end of 2013 and hopes that the UN Climate Summit to be held on 23 September will provide the political momentum for climate change negotiations. The Lima Climate Change Conference to be held at the end of this year will further build consensus for the negotiation in the next stage. China will continue to work with the international community under the principles of "common but differentiated responsibilities", equity and respective capabilities, so as to ensure that the Paris Climate Change Conference in 2015 will complete as scheduled negotiations on the new international regime for climate change issues beyond 2020 and achieve comprehensive and balanced outcomes. Developed countries should demonstrate political sincerity to honor their commitments, further cut emissions, and provide sufficient financial, technological and capacity building support for developing countries.

4. Food Security

The international community should coordinate efforts in the spirit of common development, take effective measures to improve agriculture, trade and investment environment, enhance the comprehensive production capacity for agriculture, stabilize food and other commodity prices, and guard against excessive speculation, with a view to jointly promoting world food security.

China has followed the policy of basically relying on domestic supply to realize self-sufficiency while making adjustments as appropriate through import and export. China has established mechanisms to ensure long-term food security and sufficient food reserve. China will continue to actively participate in the global efforts to eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty so as to jointly uphold world food security.

5. Financing for Development

The inadequate financing for development has always been a major challenge to international development. At present, although financing for development has made some progress, there remain problems such as funding insufficiency and long-existing weakness in fundraising capability.

The international community should establish and improve a global development partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and win-win progress, earnestly implement the Monterrey Consensus, and make efforts in the following four priority areas: first, increase development resources and strengthen the institutions of development. Second, developed countries should deliver on their commitment to increase their official development assistance to 0.7% of their gross national income, and further reduce or cancel debts owed by developing countries and open markets to them. Third, strengthen global economic governance and increase the representation and say of developing countries in international economic and financial institutions. Fourth, create a favorable external development environment for developing countries, oppose trade protectionism and help developing countries benefit from global value chain. China welcomes the Third International Conference on Financing for Development to be held in July next year.

VIII. Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

1. Nuclear Weapons

China has consistently and actively advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China is firmly committed to a nuclear strategy based on self-defence and has upheld its commitment that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances and that it would unconditionally refrain from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China advocates universal security as the ultimate goal, upholds the authority and effectiveness of the existing multilateral mechanisms including the Geneva Conference on Disarmament (CD), and follows the principle of balanced progress and consensus so as to ensure broad participation of the international community.

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and an important platform for promoting global nuclear governance. China hopes that the parties concerned will make joint efforts to uphold and strengthen the universality, authority and effectiveness of the NPT, and take a balanced approach to promoting nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and peaceful use of nuclear energy, so as to further deepen the global nuclear governance.

China supports the CD in reaching agreement on a comprehensive and balanced program of work and starting considering substantive issues at an early date. China supports the CD in launching negotiation on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) at an early date and always regards the CD as the only appropriate forum for negotiating the Treaty and has been working actively to promote consensus-building among parties to bridge differences. China firmly supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and pushes for its early entry into force.

In the third Nuclear Security Summit held in March this year, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed to follow a sensible, coordinated and balanced approach to nuclear security and jointly build an international nuclear security system featuring fairness and win-win cooperation. Under this guidance, China will work with all parties to explore an effective way to strengthen nuclear security.

Safety should come first in the use of nuclear energy. China supports the international community in taking concrete measures to enhance nuclear safety and conducting international cooperation to promote the sound and sustainable development of nuclear energy.

2. Chemical and Biological Weapons

China supports continued efforts to strengthen the effectiveness, authority and universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). China finds it regrettable that relevant states that possess chemical weapons and those that abandoned such weapons on the territories of other State Parties failed to complete the destruction process before the scheduled deadline of the CWC. China urges such countries to follow relevant decisions of the Conference of the State Parties and the Executive Council and make further efforts to complete the destruction according to the timetable of relevant decisions and destruction plans. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) should effectively supervise the destruction process. China firmly supports the destruction of Syrian chemical weapons within the framework of the Convention and has made important contribution to this end.

3. Non-Proliferation

China is firmly opposed to the proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery. To achieve the goal of non-proliferation, all countries should help build a global and regional security environment of mutual trust and cooperation, reduce the motivation for the proliferation of WMDs; resolve proliferation issues by political and diplomatic means; uphold and strengthen the international non-proliferation regime; and handle the relationship between non-proliferation and peaceful use of science and technology in a balanced way and abandon double standards. China will step up exchanges and cooperation with all parties to move forward the international non-proliferation process.

4. Security in Outer Space

China stands for the peaceful use of outer space and opposes arms race in or the introduction of weapons into outer space. China maintains that the international community should conclude relevant international legal instruments as soon as possible to fundamentally remove security threats to outer space. To this end, China and Russia submitted the Draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force Against Outer Space Objects to the CD in February 2008. In June 2014, China and Russia updated the draft treaty based on the opinions and suggestions from various parties. The CD should start negotiations on a treaty on arms control in outer space based on this draft as early as possible. China stands for the principle of "inclusiveness and complementarity" in promoting the prevention of arms race and the Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures process in outer space.

IX. Human Rights

Governments of all countries are duty-bound to promote and protect human rights. The international community should recognize that all human rights are indivisible and attach equal importance to the realization of the civil and political rights, the economic, social and cultural rights, and the right to development. Due to different national conditions, there is no one-size-fits-all model for promoting and protecting human rights. No country has the best human rights record, and there is always room for improvement.

The Chinese government has always been an active advocate of international exchanges in the field of human rights. China stands for constructive dialogue and cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual respect in order to enhance mutual understanding, bridge differences and jointly promote and protect human rights. China opposes politicizing human rights issues and adopting double standards.

X. Public Health Security

To prevent and control HIV/AIDS is an urgent task of the international community and an important dimension of the MDGs. The international community, especially developed countries, should do more to help developing countries strengthen their capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and other international institutions should increase coordination and play a greater role in helping developing countries fight HIV/AIDS. China is ready to actively participate in global initiatives and actions to prevent and control HIV/AIDS, share its experience and provide support and help to others within the scope of its capabilities.

The Ebola epidemic has seriously impacted the social and economic development of affected countries and poses new challenges to maintaining global public health security. Global public health is an integral whole and no country can stay out of it. There should be no loophole in the development of the global public health security system. The most pressing task at present is to have scientific knowledge of the Ebola epidemic and help African countries organize effective treatment and prevention, step up testing, and control the spread of the disease. We should give full play to the WHO's professional advantage and the UN's coordinating role. In long terms, we need to increase assistance to and input in Africa's medical and health development to enhance Africa's prevention and control capacity and to address both the symptoms and root causes.

The Chinese government has provided emergency medical assistance to countries including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea Bissau and dispatched expert teams to offer help. Chinese medical teams in relevant countries are still working on the ground. The Chinese side is ready to work with the international community to help effectively control this sudden epidemic at an early date.

XI. UN Financing

All UN Member States should follow the spirit of the UN Charter and the principle of capacity to pay enshrined in the resolution of the UN General Assembly, and earnestly fulfill their financial obligations by paying assessments for both regular budget and peacekeeping operations on time, in full and without conditions, so as to ensure a solid and stable financial footing for the UN.

The efficiency in the use of UN resources should be further enhanced through integration of resources and programs with full consideration and accommodation given to the legitimate concerns and demands of developing countries. Member States should step up coordination and communication to give more guidance to the Secretariat in program coordination, budget and resource management.

XII. The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels

It is the goal of all countries to achieve the rule of law at the national and international levels. At the national level, countries are entitled to independently choose the models of rule of law that suit their national conditions. Countries with different models of rule of law should learn from each other and seek common development in a spirit of mutual respect and inclusiveness. The Chinese government will make comprehensive strategic plans for promoting the rule of law aimed at "building China into a country based on the rule of law". To strengthen the rule of law at the international level, it is necessary to uphold the authority of the UN Charter, and strictly abide by universally recognized principles of international law such as sovereign equality and non-interference in others' affairs. We should uphold the consistent and equal application of international law, avoid double standards, continuously improve international law-making process, ensure that international law is observed and implemented and promote democracy and the rule of law in international relations.

XIII. The International Criminal Court

China supports the establishment of an independent, just and effective International Criminal Court (ICC) that exercises universal and complementary jurisdiction to punish the most serious international crimes and promote world peace and judicial justice. The work of the ICC should follow the purposes of promoting international peace and security and safeguarding the wellbeing of all mankind. It should coordinate and cooperate with other international mechanisms and avoid disrupting relevant peace processes. China hopes that the ICC will strictly stick to the principle of complementarity, earnestly respect national judicial sovereignty of countries and prudently carry out its mandate in accordance with law to win the broad confidence and respect of the international community through objective and just performance.

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